Vitamins: What are they and what do they do?

  • Vitamins are organic compounds that are essential in very small amounts for supporting normal physiologic function.
  • We need vitamins in our diets, because our bodies can’t synthesize them quickly enough to meet our daily needs.
  • The study of Vitamins called "VItaminology".
  • all of these are essential nutrients, Vitamins measured in International Units (IU).
Fruits and Vegetables are major resources for
  • Vitamins have three characteristics:
  • They’re natural components of foods; usually present in very small amounts.
  • They’re essential for normal physiologic function (e.g., growth, reproduction, etc).
  • When absent from the diet, they will cause a specific deficiency.
Root Vegetables
  • There are 13 known vitamins.
  • Vitamins are generally categorized as either fat-soluble or water-soluble depending on whether they dissolve best in either lipids or water.
  • Fat-Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E, and K
  • Water-Soluble Vitamins: B-Complex and Vitamin C
  • Vitamins always contain carbon, so they are described as "organic."

Vitamin A, Health benefits and risks| Retinol

Vitamin A:

Green Vegetables and Carrot is rich in Vitamin A

  • Vitamin A was discovered by scientists McCallum and Davis.
  • Its chemical name is Retinol
  • Its most common form is the Anti-glycemic vitamin, the Bright Eye Vitamin.
  • Vitamin-A is available in the liver, yellow fruits, vegetables, all kinds of greens, carrots, milk (high in cow's milk), shark and codfish.
  • Note: "carrot", a diet high in vitamin A 


  • It is abundant in Asparagus.
  • It is the most abundant in Papaya
  • Cantaloupe, Pink grapefruit, Apricots, Pumpkin, Sweet potatoes, Winter squash, Dark green, leafy vegetables, Broccoli
  • Vitamin-A is the reason for the palm oil being yellow
  • Its functions include eyesight, pregnancy, bone growth,
  • Diseases caused by:
  • Nyctalopia (dark): Blindness in the eyes.
  • Xerophthalmia (Dryness): When the eyes become dry, the delicate cornea/cornea covering the eyelashes will burst and cause permanent blindness is the major deficiency of Vitamin-A          

    Prevalence of Vitamin A deficiency

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Vitamin C,Benefits, Sources, Supplements, Ascorbic acid,Scurvy

Vitamin C:

  • It was discovered by scientists James Lind and Gent Garthy.
  • The chemical name is Ascorbic acid Its generic name is called Anti Scurvy Vitamin, Slimness Vitamin, Cheap Vitamin
  • It has Citrus /Lemon juice, Siri (Indian gooseberry), Available in sodium Guava and so on.

  • It is not available in animal products such as milk, eggs and meat.
  • Its functions 1. Collagen-making protein 2. Fracture of broken bones 3.Recovery from wounds 4. Restore lost parts 5. Prevent viruses 6. Controlling heart rhythms 7. Working as an anti-cancer / anti-oxidant 8. Increase immunity 9. Iron (Fe) absorption 10. Reduce cholesterol and so forth.
  • Diseases caused by its deficiency are Scurvy: Bleeding from gums. Bones, muscle aches, skin breaks and so forth.
  • Vitamin C is an Antioxidant
  • It is important for your skin, bones, and connective tissue. It promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron.


 1. Heat perishable vitamins: C, folic acid.
 2. The vitamins that make E.coli: K, B,
 3. Vitamins that contain Sulfur are: B, B, (Biotin).
 4. Anti-Cancer Vitamines: A, C, E.
 5. Vitamins present in beer: B3,B6, B9, B12.
Note: Vitamins A, D available from shark cod fish liver oil.


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Vitamin D,Deficiency Causes Common Symptoms, Sunshine Vitamin, Hormone Vitamin

Vitamin D:

  • It was found by McCallum
  • Its chemical name is Calciferol.
  • Its generic name is Sunshine Vitamin, Anti-Critical Vitamin / Free Vitamin, Hormone Vitamin.
Morning Sun is a Major resource for Vitamin D
  • Vitamin C may help in treating Cancer. As an antioxidant, it protects the body against oxidative stress and helps prevent the oxidation of other molecules.
  • Repairs and maintain cartilage, bones and teeth, to heal wounds and to form scar tissue.
  • Smoking cigarettes can lower the amount of vitamin C in the body, so smokers are more prone to a deficiency.

  • It is available in sunlight, cod, shark fish liver oil, milk, liver, egg yolk and more.
  • Note: It is not available in plants.
  • When sunlight (UV-B: ultraviolet rays) falls on the skin, cholesterol under the skin becomes vitamin D.
  • Its function is: It helps with the delivery of Ca and P.
  • Its deficiency can cause rickets in young children, Osteomalacia in adults, and Pigeon Chest.

Vitamin E,Sources, Benefits and Risks| Tocopherol, Anti-sterility vitamin,Beauty-Vitamins

Vitamin E:

Fruits are rich in Vitamin E
  • It was discovered by scientists Evans and Bishop.
  • Its chemical name is Tocopherol.
  • Its generic name is an Anti-sterility vitamin
  • and Beauty Vitamin
  • It has in fresh fruits, Sprout Seeds, Sunflower,
  • Cinnamon oil, Saffron, Nuts / Pickles cashew nuts,
  • almonds Such dry fruits and so on).
  • Vitamin-E function are:
  • The reproductive system needs to function properly,
  • muscle functions.
  • Vitamin E has the ability to protect cells from free radical damage as well as stop the production of free radical cells entirely
  • Vitamin E may help support a healthy scalp and hair as it has natural antioxidant effects that could assist with maintaining hair growth.
  • The vitamin's antioxidant properties could help reduce the amount of oxidative stress and free radicals that cause the hair follicle cells in a person's scalp to break down.
  • Note: This should be given to
  • A person who has had a miscarriage.
  • Its deficiency can lead to infertility in mice,
  • Dysfunction of the reproductive organs,
  • and decreased RBC life expectancy.

Vitamin K:Uses, Deficiency, Food Sources| Phylloquinone| Anti Bleeding Vitamin| Anti Bleeding Vitamin

Vitamin K:

Green leafy vegetables
  • It was discovered by a scientist named Dame.
  • Its chemical name is Phylloquinone,
  • Its generic name is Anti Bleeding Vitamin and Anti Bleeding Vitamin.
  • It is found in greens, liver, eggs, cows milk, and oesophagal colitis (E.Coll} bacteria etc.
  • Most of the infant's baby is deficient Vitamin-K.
  • Therefore, this vitamin is given uring surgery
  • Its function is to coagulate the blood within 2-5 minutes of injury
  • Its deficiency can lead to excessive bleeding
  • (Maemorrhagia),
  • Congestive heart failure, and pancreatitis.

B complex| Vitamin B| Water soluble Vitamin| Thiamine| Anti-Neuritic Vitamin| Anti-Beriberi Vitamin

Water soluble vitamins: B complex,and C:

Vitamin B1:

  • Its chemical name is thiamine.
  • Its generic name is Anti-Neuritic Vitamin, Anti-Beriberi Vitamin
  • It is available in poultry, milk, eggs and liver.
  • Note: This vitamin is deficient in mostly polished rice.
  • Its main function is to metabolize carbohydrates.
  • Beriberi (deficient heartbeat, nervous system failure, muscle spasm).
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